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A Man for All Seasons ()


The Image Top 100 Books of the Century

The basic facts of this story are surely well known.  When Henry VIII unexpectedly became heir to the British throne upon his brother's death, the Pope made a special dispensation to allow him to marry his brother's widow, the politically desirable Spanish princess Catherine.  Later, when Queen Catherine failed to produce a male heir for King Henry and as she became increasingly plain and more deeply religious, Henry sought to have the Pope nullify the marriage for the very reason that it violated Christian law for a man to marry his brother's widow.  Sir Thomas More resigned his post as Lord Chancellor of England in 1532 because of his opposition to Henry's plan.  Henry having taken England out of the Catholic Church and established the Church of England with himself at its head, Anne Boleyn was crowned his new Queen in June of 1533.   Henry passed the Act of Succession in March 1534, which required all who should be called upon to take an oath acknowledging the issue of Henry and Anne as legitimate heirs to the throne, and to this was added a clause repudiating "any foreign authority, prince or potentate".  More was summoned on March 14, but refused to take the oath and was sent to the Tower of London.  He was indicted for treason in July and at trial solicitor-general Richard Rich testified that More had denied Parliament's power to invest Henry with ecclesiastical powers.  Despite More's denial of the statement and his avowal that Rich was a perjurer, he was convicted and was beheaded at Tower Hill on July 6, 1535.  For his willingness to be executed rather than renounce his oath to the Pope and the Catholic Church,  Thomas More became a martyr and was eventually sainted.  Protestant England became the greatest nation on Earth and developed the political, religious and economic institutions upon which all successful modern nations are based.

Robert Bolt's great play presents in simple, unadorned scenes, the dilemma of a man of conscience and serves to remind us of how rare and valuable such men are in every age.  Bolt's More argues that a man who will sacrifice his conscience has lost something central to his being:

    When a man takes an oath, Meg, he's holding his own self in his own hands. Like water....and if he
    opens his fingers then--he needn't hope to find himself again...

And in the play's greatest passage, he argues for the centrality of the law, over and against men, in the governance of human affairs, when his family wants him to have the disloyal Rich arrested:

    Wife:  Arrest him!

    More:  For what?

    Wife:  He's dangerous!

    Roper:  For all we know he's a spy!

    Daughter:  Father, that man's bad!

    More:  There's no law against that!

    Roper:  There is, God's law!

    More:  Then let God arrest him!

    Wife:  While you talk he's gone!

    More:  And go he should, if he were the Devil himself, until he broke the law!

    Roper:  So, now you give the Devil the benefit of law!

    More:  Yes! What would you do? Cut a great road through the law to get after the Devil?

    Roper:  Yes, I'd cut down every law in England to do that!

    More:  Oh? And when the last law was down, and the Devil turned 'round on you, where would
                you hide, Roper, the laws all being flat?

                This country is planted thick with laws, from coast to coast, Man's laws, not God's! And if
                you cut them down (and you're just the man to do it!), do you really think you could stand
                upright in the winds that would blow then?

                Yes, I'd give the Devil benefit of law, for my own safety's sake!

Finally, when he is brought before the Court, More warns those assembled: "It is a long road you have opened for first men will disclaim their hearts and presently they will have no hearts. God help the people whose statesmen walk your road."

[For those of us of a certain age and political persuasion, these lines will always call to mind the impassioned plea by Henry Hyde (R, IL) for the Senate to hold President Clinton answerable to the laws of the land.  But then as in More's time, there were hardly any ready to withstand the leveling political wind that was blowing.  No Cabinet Member or Administration employee resigned in the face of the President's misconduct and lies.  No Democrat Senator voted for a single article of impeachment; all succumbed to the cult of personality.  It was particularly appalling to watch men like Moynihan, Lieberman and Byrd betray every principle for which they have spoken in public life.  For one awful, but thankfully brief moment, we saw the dread specter of what it's like to live in a world where the whims of men are paramount, and the rule of law a farce.  Well might we, like More, ask God to help a nation where the statesmen have no hearts, where they place their masters above the law.]

In the end, Henry's actions set England upon the path to becoming a great nation and made him a world historical figure.  But even, or especially, a great nation needs men like Thomas More, who stand willing to vindicate the rule of law regardless of their personal feelings and interests.  More, who followed the dictates of conscience, rather than the diktats of a king, is truly one of the great men of history and remains a vital example to all mankind.

(Reviewed:)

Grade: (A+)

  

Websites:

Book-related and General Links:
    -A Man for All Seasons study site
    -The St. Thomas More Web Page
    -BIO: St. Thomas More (Catholic Encyclopedia)
    -Thomas More Chronology
    -King Henry VIII and His Six Wives (Tudor Royal History)
    -ESSAY: from Short Route to Chaos  by Stephen Arons
    -ESSAY: Historical Drama and the Dimensions of Tragedy: A Man For All Seasons and The Crucible (Terry Otten)
    -ESSAY: Sir Thomas More and the Art of Dialogue (Romuald Ian Lakowski, Ph.D. Diss. U of British Columbia)
    -ESSAY: Thomas More for Our Season (Robert H. Bork, First Things)
    -FILM: Review from Flick Filosopher
    -FILM: Review (Jonathan DeMersseman, Christian Spotlight on the Movies)

Comments:

Sure, none of those provisions have been violated.

- oj

- Jan-08-2006, 10:41

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No law breaking, eh? Have you read U.S. Criminal Codes; Section 2441?

Read that, sober up, and then tell me that the Bush administration gives a crap for the rule of law.

- Len Hart

- Dec-13-2005, 00:53

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Len:

Sure, if anyone broke the law they have to face the consequences.

From what's been made public there has been no law breaking here.

- oj

- Oct-27-2005, 17:32

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You guys missed the whole point of More's speech. Now...to prove that the lesson was not entirely lost on you, are you prepared to make the same analogy to George W. Bush who seems to care nothing for the rule or law and less for the U.S. Constitution?

Secondly, to make an analogy between getting a blow job and crimes of "treason" is a stretch that only a modern Republican could make and they make it so often it's become a habit with them. Clinton was accused of perjuring himself about something that is not even a crime, though I wonder why it was not raised to that level by a John Ashcroft decree! To accuse and/or convict someone of lying about something that is not even a crime is the very height of triviality and it is apparent that the GOP wasted a lot of self-righteous, disingenuous pomposity on it.

Now Bush's minions are accused of treason, "outing" a NOC because someone DARED to tell the truth and thus expose the black hearted lies of George W. Bush. Are Katrina strengths blowing now? Has the Devil turned round on George W. Bush and, indeed, the embattled GOP from Tom DeLay to Bill Frist? Where will Bush and his extremist GOP hide now...the laws having been laid waste by NEOCONS and would-be torturers?

- Len Hart

- Oct-27-2005, 17:30

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Hello gentlemen,

Great review of a fine play - which I quite like even if it does not quite capture More's understanding of conscience. One more xample of why you have such a great website. Keep up the great work.

Just a small quibble: I am not sure it is clear that Henry VIII's actions set England on the path to greatness - a path it did take, but the causal relationship is not clear. The only possible argument I can see is in the fruit of the alliance that Henry's Act of Supremacy cleared the way for: the birth of Pricess Elizabeth, later Gloriana, Queen Elizabeth I, to his second wife, Ann Boleyn.

Otherwise, Henry merely inaugurated a century and a half of religious and political upheaval in England, destroyed the monastery system on which so many of the realm's poor depended, and inaugurated a final phaseof his reign which saw increasing tyranny and persecution, political isolation of England, virtual bankrupting of the treasury - all such a realm which Henry came into as one of the very richest in Christendom was one of the most deeply indebted and econominally weak when he passed away in 1547.

Nonetheless, there is a certain partisan position in what I am saying here: Henry took the first step into making England Protestant, and Protestants will regard that as a good thing. The only difficulty is that Henry never saw himself as doing any such thing, and that it was, ironically, the bloody persecutions of his Catholic daughter, Mary I, which decisively turned most of the English people against Rome once and for all.

- Richard

- Mar-25-2005, 17:12

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The president lied when he got is into the Iraq war. The United States has very sophisticated spyware going back a long time. We see and hear things via satelite to human spies. The UN weapons inspectors from the USA reported their findings to our National Security. Democracy should be defended where ever, even in the Congo. The Patriot Act and Redux are bad laws, that even the conversative CATO Institute names said laws as not the way to make law.

With Bush willing to take away laws that protect its own citizens you need peope in the spriting of St Thomas More to speak up. Oh? And when the last law was down, and the Devil turned 'round on you, where would                 you hide, Roper, the laws all being flat?                 This country is planted thick with laws, from coast to coast, Man's laws, not God's! And if                 you cut them down (and you're just the man to do it!), do you really think you could stand                 upright in the winds that would blow then?                 Yes, I'd give the Devil benefit of law, for my own safety's sake!

How dare anyone take away our basic civil rights. 9/11 is not an excuse. We if we do not defend them... we will wind up like the aformentioned scenario from Bolt's play.

-

- Apr-20-2003, 13:35

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i think your review is very good, im studying the book in english class and now have an exam on it and since a barely remembered it, you must excuse me, i ate the brown acid at woodstock '69' and can scarsely remember my own name:) and your review is going to get me an A+!!! thanx alot your a champ....smileforme62@hotmail.com

- sarah

- Nov-19-2002, 02:03

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