The 19th Century bequeathed us four immediately recognizable, vibrant and enduring fictional icons: Shelley's Frankenstein; Stoker's Dracula; Melville's Moby Dick (& Ahab); and Conan Doyle's Sherlock Holmes. Each of them has, I fear, suffered a horrible fate: they are so familiar to us, in their many modern incarnations & imitations, that too few people return to the original texts. This may be particularly true of Frankenstein, whose portrayals have been so frivolous and distorted. In fact, in addition to being written in luxuriant gothic prose, the original novel is one of the most profound meditations on Man and his purpose and relation to God that has exists in our literature.
Victor Frankenstein is a young man of Geneva who is fascinated by the sciences and the secrets of life and death:
My temper was sometimes violent, and my passions vehement;
but by some law in my
While at University in Ingolstadt, his life course is set when he hears a professor lecture on modern chemistry:
'The ancient teachers of this science,'said he, 'promised
Such were the professor's words--rather let me say such were
the words of the
Victor goes on to discover, through the study of chemistry, the secret of bringing dead flesh to life. Inevitably he tests his discovery and of viewing his creation cries:
How can I describe my emotions at this catastrophe, or how delineate the wretch whom with such infinite pains and care I had endeavored to form? His limbs were in proportion, and I had selected his features as beautiful. Beautiful! Great God! His yellow skin scarcely covered the work of muscles and arteries beneath; his hair was of a lustrous black, and flowing; his teeth of a pearly whiteness; but these luxuriances only formed a more horrid contrast with his watery eyes, that seemed almost of the same colour as the dun-white sockets in which they were set, his shrivelled complexion and straight black lips.
And so, repelled by the mere appearance, the inevitable imperfection, of his work, Frankenstein rejects the creature utterly. However, unlike the mute stupid monster of the movies, Shelley's monster is articulate and sensitive and longs for companionship, but all of humankind reacts to him with horror. And so he demands that Frankenstein build him a mate. When Frankenstein refuses to provide him with a companion, the creature resolves to destroy those who Frankenstein loves.
Finally, Frankenstein determines that he must destroy the creature and pursues him into the frozen wastes of the North.
It all makes for a rousing adventure, but there is much more here. Frankenstein, through his work, has attempted to become a god, but his creation is a horrible disappointment & so, is banished from him. Meanwhile, his flawed creation, filled with ineffable longing and confusion, wanders in exile seeking the meaning of his existence. And what is the impulse that he settles upon, but another act of creation; a mate must be created for him. The Biblical parallels are obvious, but they work on us subtly as we read the novel. In the end, the uncontrollable urge to create, to imitate God, stands revealed as Man's driving force. And the inevitable disappointment of the creator in his creation, is revealed as the serpent in the garden.
If you've never read this book, read it now. If you've read it before, read it again.
-WIKIPEDIA: Mary Shelley
-ESSAY: The Friend Zone: Mary Wollstonecraft’s ideas on what makes a marriage tick were downright radical for their time (Robert Zaretsky | February 19, 2022, American Scholar) https://themillions.com/2022/11/the-original-fire-on-mary-shelley-and-creativity.html
-ESSAY: The Original Fire: On Mary Shelley and Creativity (Bryan VanDyke November 7, 2022 , The Millions)
-REVIEW ESSAY: Frankenstein at 200 (PAUL A. CANTOR, 12/13/18, Weekly Standard)
-ESSAY: The Hoax That Inspired Mary Shelley: In the hot summer of 1826, the British people—including science fiction author, Mary Shelley—embraced a fake and frozen Roger Dodsworth (Emily Zarevich, August 9, 2022, JSTOR DAily)
-ESSAY: How Reading and the Thirst for Knowledge is at the Heart of Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein: Heather Cass White on the Almost Sinful Allure of Self-Enlightenment (Heather Cass White, August 23, 2021, LitHub)
-ESSAY: The Libertarian History of Science Fiction (Jordan Alexander Hill, 6/20/20, Quillette)
-ESSAY: Frankenstein: A postmodern novel written long before modernism: It’s impossible to be sure what really happens in the text of Mary Shelley’s masterpiece (Lucy Sweeney Byrne, 9/26/20, Irish Times) -Frankenstein (etext)
-Mary Shelley & Frankenstein
-Discovery Channel School: Frankenstein
-Literary Research Guide: Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley (1797 - 1851)
-Mary Shelley (Most Web)
-REVIEW : of Mary Shelley by Miranda Seymour (David Crane, The Spectator)
-REVIEW ESSAY: Running scared of religion: Shelley’s story prompts us to consider the relationship between The Almighty and man (Anne McElvoy, 5/28/20, The Critic)
-REVIEW : of Mary Shelley by Miranda Seymour (VICTORIA WHITE, Irish Times)
-REVIEW : of Miranda Seymour's Mary Shelley (Budge Burgess, Spike)
-REVIEW : of Mary Wollstonecraft: A Revolutionary Life by Janet Todd (Susan Eilenberg, London Review of Books)
-ESSAY : NIGHT OF OUR GHASTLY LONGINGS (George Stade, NY Times Book Review)
-REVIEW : of 'Mary Shelley' by Miranda Seymour (John Sutherland, Washington Post)
-REVIEW : of Mary Shelley by Miranda Seymour (David Crane, Spectator)
-REVIEW : of Mary Shelley By Miranda Seymour (PAUL MARX, Houston Chronicle )
Book-related and General Links:
-REVIEW ESSAY: Gnostic Reality and Horror Theology: Matt Cardin’s Guide to Modernity’s Apocalypse (Filip Bakardzhiev, 4/23/23, Voegelin View)
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