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    The homosexual experience may be deemed an illness, a disorder, a privilege, or a curse; it may be deemed worthy of a 'cure,' rectified,
    embraced, or endured.  But it exists.
        -Andrew Sullivan, Virtually Normal

Even if you don't agree with another word in the book, I think we have to grant the validity of this premise : homosexuality exists and we, all of us, need to reckon with it.  Andrew Sullivan, one of the most prolific and frequently interesting political writers of the day, here sets the stage for a reasoned discussion of how we, as a society, should handle the reality of homosexuality and of how we should treat homosexuals.  Though I disagree with his final conclusions, I appreciate the way in which he treats differing viewpoints respectfully and I think he makes a serious moral argument for his own position.  As we go forward and wrestle with the issues he raises, it seems likely that we will continue to utilize the framework that he has erected for analyzing them.  This in itself makes the book eminently worthwhile.

Mr. (Dr.?) Sullivan begins his discussion of homosexuality by asking the question, What is a homosexual?, and  rather than really answering, describes his own life experiences, essentially offering us an example of a homosexual.  He does, however, present a portrait of homosexual as somewhat bifurcated beings :

    The homosexual learns to make distinctions between his sexual desire and his emotional longing--not because he is particularly prone to
    objectifications of the flesh, but because he needs to survive as a social and sexual being.  The society separates these two entities, and for
    a long time the homosexual has no option but to keep them separate.  He learns certain rules; and, as with a child learning grammar, they
    are hard, later on in life, to unlearn.

    It's possible, I think, that whatever society teaches or doesn't teach about homosexuality, this fact will always be the case.  No homosexual
    child, surrounded overwhelmingly by heterosexuals, will feel at home in his sexual and emotional world, even in the most tolerant of
    cultures.  And every homosexual child will learn the rituals of deceit, impersonation, and appearance.  Anyone who believes political,
    social, or even cultural revolution will change this fundamentally is denying reality.  This isolation will always hold.  It is definitional of
    homosexual development.

This fundamental split between the private and the social realms provides the axes along which he locates what he defines as the four prevailing political stances towards homosexuality.

The first "politics of homosexuality" that he examines is prohibitionism :

    The most common view about homosexuality--both now and, to an even greater extent, in the past--has an appealing simplicity to it.  It is
    that homosexuality is an aberration and that homosexual acts are an abomination.  It is that homosexuality is an illness that requires a cure,
    and that homosexual acts--meaning sexual acts between two people of the same gender--are transgressions which require legal punishment
    and social deterrence.  All human beings, in this view, are essentially heterosexual; and the attempt to undermine this fundamental identity
    is a crime against nature itself.  In fact, to legitimize homosexuality is to strike at the core of the possibility of civilization--and to pervert
    the natural design of male and female as the essential complementary parts of the universe.

    Perhaps the most depressing and fruitless feature of the current debate about homosexuality is to treat all versions of this argument as
    the equivalent of bigotry.  They are not.

Essentially, this is a politics which is derived from religious and/or moral objections to homosexual acts and so would totally prohibit them

Next is liberationism, which is prohibitionism's opposite :

    For the liberationists, homosexuality as a defining condition does not properly exist because it is a construct of human thought, not an
    inherent or natural state of being.  It is a 'construction,' generated in human consciousness by the powerful to control and define the
    powerless.  It reflects not the true state of human affairs, but a crude and arbitrary ordering imposed upon them.  As with many
    prohibitionists, there are no homosexuals, merely same-sex acts; only unlike the prohibitionists, even these acts are dependent on their
    social context for their meaning.

    This at least is the liberationist analysis.  The liberationist prescription is more inspiring.  For all liberationists, the full end of human
    fruition is to be free of all social constructs, to be liberated from the condition of homosexuality into a fully chosen form of identity, which
    is a repository of individual acts of freedom.

Refusing even to acknowledge the existence of morality, the liberationists would not bar any behavior, anywhere, at any time.

The third politics of homosexuality is conservatism :

    It concedes, unlike much prohibitionism and liberationism, that some small minority of people are constitutively homosexual--they can't
    help it--and that they deserve a good deal of private respect.  Most conservatives are well aware that many of the most distinguished
    members of society are homosexual; and that the existence of homosexuality seems to be a constant throughout all cultures and times.
    These conservatives are not alarmed to meet a homosexual at a dinner party (indeed, they may find it fashionable to invite one or two) and
    regard some level of comfort with homosexuals as a mark of civilized conduct.  Moreover, these conservatives find it abhorrent that
    homosexuals--especially homosexuals they know--might be subject to harassment, violence, ill treatment, discrimination, or illness, for no
    fault of their own.  So they're mainly at ease with the relaxation of social sanctions against homosexuality that has occurred in most
    Western countries since the 1960s, although it's not something they're particularly eager to discuss.  The sensibility that privately tolerates
    homosexuality is often also the sensibility that finds it uncomfortable to talk about.

    Conservatives combine a private tolerance of homosexuals with public disapproval of homosexuality.  While they do not want to see legal
    persecution of homosexuals, they see no problem with discouragement and disparagement of homosexual behavior in the abstract or, more
    commonly, a carefully sustained hush on the matter altogether.  In this sense, they are also tolerant of private homosexuals and
    disapproving of public ones; they are the deftest enforcers of the code of discretion.  They are liberals inasmuch as they respect and support
    a distinction between private and public life, and do not wish to see people's privacy invaded; but they are conservatives inasmuch as they
    wish to guide public life in a way that clearly demarcates homosexual behavior as shameful and to be avoided.

Conservatism basically allows homosexuality in private life but not in public life.

Finally, there's liberalism  :

    Liberals believe, like conservatives, that homosexuality as a social phenomenon is a mixture of choice and compulsion.  Some people, they
    concede, are involuntarily homosexual; others may be tempted that way, but could lead either heterosexual or homosexual existences.  But
    unlike conservatives, whose first recourse is to ask how society's interests are affected by this phenomenon--and therefore what social
    effects would be incurred by a relaxation of the antihomosexual taboo--liberals ask first how the individual is affected.  And by this, of
    course, they mean primarily the individual homosexual.

    They see the homosexual's rights infringed in several areas: the right to individual privacy, where the antisodomy laws exist; the right to
    free expression, where social oppression largely intimidates homosexuals from disclosing freely who they are; and, most significantly, the
    right to employment and housing, where antihomosexual prejudice results in homosexuals being fired or never hired because of their sexual
    orientation, or being refused housing.  So the liberal's response is to create laws which protect this minority class from such infringements
    on its freedoms: abolition of antisodomy laws, enforcement of antidiscrimination statutes in employment and housing, discouragement of
    antihomosexual public expression in the form of hate crimes laws, and the like.

Liberalism not only accepts homosexuality in private life, but insists that it be accepted by the entire public, under penalty of law.

Mr. Sullivan is exceptionally even-handed in treating each of the four politics of homosexuality, pointing out what he thinks are weaknesses, but generally seeking to understand, rather than to question, the motivations of the respective adherents of each theory.  It will come as no surprise to anyone who reads him regularly that Mr. Sullivan, though he seems to admire the ideological purity of the prohibitionists and liberationists, finds their absolutism to be ultimately untenable.  Nor will they be shocked that he is, in many ways, toughest on liberalism, first for its belief that changing laws can change men's hearts, second for the very notion that it is appropriate for the state to try to dictate our opinions on such matters, and, finally, for its treatment of homosexuals as victims, which necessarily diminishes them and assumes that their liberation depends not on their own actions but on the good intentions of liberals.   All that's really left at that point is conservatism, but Mr. Sullivan--who is, at least on issues that do not directly affect him, temperamentally conservative--finds its refusal to treat homosexuality as acceptable in public to be too restrictive.  So, he offers a fifth option, a kind of synthesis of what he likes best about each of the existing politics.

In place of the four traditional theories, Mr. Sullivan offers his own politics of homosexuality :

    This politics begins with the view that for a small minority of people, from a young age, homosexuality is an essentially involuntary
    condition that can neither be denied nor permanently repressed.  It is the function of both nature and nurture, but the forces of nurture are
    formed so early and are so complex that they amount to an involuntary condition.  It is as if it were a function of nature.  Moreover, so
    long as homosexual adults as citizens insist on the involuntary nature of their condition, it becomes politically impossible to deny or ignore
    the fact of homosexuality.

    This politics adheres to an understanding that there is a limit to what politics can achieve in such a fraught area as homosexuality, and it
    trains its focus not on the behavior of citizens in civil society but on the actions of the public and allegedly neutral state.  While it eschews
    the use of law to legislate culture, it strongly believes that law can affect culture indirectly by its insistence on the equality of all citizens.
    Its goal in the area of homosexuality is simply to ensure that the liberal state live up to its promise for all its citizens.  It would seek full
    public equality for those who, through no fault of their own, happen to be homosexual; and it would not deny homosexuals, as the other
    four politics do, their existence, integrity, dignity, or distinctness.  It would attempt neither to patronize nor to exclude.

    This politics affirms a simple and limited principle: that all public (as opposed to private) discrimination against homosexuals be ended
    and that every right and responsibility that heterosexuals enjoy as public citizens be extended to those who grow up and find themselves
    emotionally different.  And that is all.

This politics would obviously have a number of important implications for public policy but :

    Its most powerful and important elements are equal access to the military and marriage.

He treats the issue of homosexuals serving openly in the military briefly, asserting that the "Don't Ask, Don't Tell" policy prevailed :

    ...because of the dominant, visceral, and powerful emotions upon which the politics of prohibitionism stands...

but that the dialogue it opened up, which required society to acknowledge that homosexuals had in the past rendered, and continue to render, exemplary service to the nation, must eventually transform how we deal with homosexuality.  But Mr. Sullivan's more heartfelt purpose is to clear the way for homosexual marriage :

    The critical measure for this politics of public equality-private freedom is something deeper and more emotional, perhaps, than the military.

    It is equal access to civil marriage.

    As with the military, this is a question of formal public discrimination, since only the state can grant and recognize marriage.  If the
    military ban deals with the heart of what it means to be a citizen, marriage does even more so, since, in peace and war, it affects everyone.
    Marriage is not simply a private contract; it is a social and public recognition of a private commitment.  As such, it is the highest public
    recognition of personal integrity.  Denying it to homosexuals is the most public affront possible to their public equality.

Thus, the crux of the matter, for Mr. Sullivan, is that each of us is entitled to discriminate against homosexuals in private, but the state is never allowed to make any distinctions between citizens on the basis of their sexual preferences : "public equality-private freedom."

It should be obvious by now that Mr. Sullivan's target audience is really just one of the four groups ; conservatives.  After all, prohibitionists will not accept the idea of even private homosexual acts; liberationists will not be satisfied with any limitations whatsoever; and liberals will do whatever they are told to do by homosexuals.   It is conservatives whom Mr. Sullivan hopes to convince with his argument.  He is trying to demonstrate that it is their own best interest to allow these changes to occur.

Now, as it happens, I am a conservative; and while I would no more claim to speak for conservatives in general than Mr. Sullivan claims to speak for homosexuals in general, allow me to state some of my objections to his these.   First, I would take exception to a statement that he makes about conservatism :

    Instead of mounting a steady and distasteful retreat, conservatives might concede that society is changing and that it is the quintessential
    conservative posture to co-opt that change rather than to go into lonely opposition against it.

This seems to me to rather badly misstate the central purpose of conservatism and of its enduring value as a political philosophy.  Contrast his assertion with this definition from Russell Kirk's epochal text, The Conservative Mind :

    [T]he essence of social conservatism is preservation of the ancient moral traditions of humanity.  Conservatives respect the wisdom of their
    ancestors...; they are dubious of wholesale alteration.  They think society is a spiritual reality, possessing an eternal life but a delicate
    constitution : it cannot be scrapped and recast as if it were a machine.  'What is conservatism?' Abraham Lincoln inquired once.  'Is it not
    adherence to the old and tried, against the new and untried?'

Conservatism is never more sublime than when it stands in lonely opposition to the prevailing winds of change, particularly wholesale change, which is always for the worst.  Likewise, it is never more valuable than when it serves as a brake on such helter skelter alteration of society.  Conservatism is frequently in retreat, but when it manages to do so slowly, fighting for every hill and valley, it can often reduce, though sadly not avert altogether, the damage that is done by those who are so foolish as to try to remake man and society.

Second, it is important to note that the two institutions that Mr. Sullivan is most determined to tamper with, the military and marriage, lie at the very core of, respectively, government and civil society.  For a conservative, it may well be that the only appropriate function of government he will concede is to provide physical security, through law enforcement and national defense.  The suggestion that this one essential role of government be thrown open to experimentation must be especially alarming.

And what is the precise objection to homosexuals openly serving in the military?  It is not mere homophobia, but it is at least partly sexual.  The conservative opposition to homosexuals in combat is, at least in part, identical to the opposition to women so serving; it is that such service necessarily introduces an element of sexual tension into the most difficult and demanding of human tasks, the waging of war.  It is that anything that might further confuse the already treacherous situation in which combat occurs should be avoided at all cost.  Perhaps nothing is more important in battle than the cohesion of the fighting unit, and nothing should be allowed to undermine it.  What could be more detrimental to the camaraderie and mutual dependence of a group of men than love or jealous hatred between certain members.  It was after all one of the great homosexual novelists, E. M. Forster, who said, to the enduring applause of the Left :

    If I had to choose between betraying my country and betraying my friend, I hope I should have the guts to betray my country.

How much stronger might the seduction of such a sentiment be if the choice were between a lover and a mere handful of countrymen?

Likewise, Mr. Sullivan himself repeatedly notes that homosexuals are quite simply different than heterosexuals.  And his differentiation of the neutral public square from the sphere of private prejudices is based at least in part on the recognition that such prejudices do exist and will endure. Imagine the disaster that awaits when men who may well loathe the sexual behavior of their fellow soldiers  are sent into battle and asked to fight shoulder to shoulder.  It is somewhat bizarre for Mr. Sullivan to recognize that homosexuals will face prejudice in the private sphere but then to imagine that such prejudices will not assert themselves in such a highly emotional atmosphere as military service will often present.  In defending his belief that the state can not force citizens to accept homosexuality and homosexuals in their private lives, he says that we have "in a liberal society...the right not to have the state impose a certain morality."  Though the military is obviously a public institution, inserting homosexuals into the barracks and battle will represent the imposition of a certain morality on a massive and potentially disastrous scale.  No conservative will blithely contemplate this eventuality.

As to marriage, Mr. Sullivan takes the curious stance that the institution of the family has already been so badly degraded that conservatives should not seek to uphold its ideal form :

    Some might argue that marriage is by definition between a man and a woman; and it is difficult to argue with a definition.  But if marriage
    is articulated beyond this circular fiat, then the argument for its exclusivity to one man and one woman disappears.  The center of the public
    contract is an emotional, financial, and psychological bond between two people; in this respect, heterosexuals and homosexuals are
    identical.  The heterosexuality of marriage is intrinsic only if it is understood to be intrinsically procreative; but that definition has long
    been abandoned in Western society.  No civil marriage license is granted on the condition that the couple bear children; and the marriage is
    no less legal and no less defensible if it remains childless.  In the contemporary West, marriage has become a way in which the state
    recognizes an emotional commitment by two people to each other for life.  And within that definition, there is no public way, if one
    believes in equal rights under the law, in which it should legally be denied homosexuals.

Of course, we might even go Mr. Sullivan one better and admit that marriage is no longer "for life", in our modern day, but rather "until you may find it annoying."    But all of this is quite besides the point.  There simply is no "right" to marry.  Marriage is a privilege, granted by the state, along with a series of benefits, for the central purpose of continuing its own existence--procreation--and the raising of healthy citizens--in the nuclear family, for which we have yet to find an effective substitute.  It goes without saying that if we dispense with the definition of marriage, the objections to its extension will go away.  But we may dispense with the definition of a duck and its feet will still be webbed and water will still roll off its back.

If it is really true that all that is left of marriage is "a way in which the state recognizes an emotional commitment", then let's just get rid of it and start over.  What conceivable social interest is served by such a recognition?  Why is it necessary to destroy one of the West's greatest and longest lived institutions in order to achieve this petty purpose?  Couldn't we just give any couple that wants one some kind of "emotional commitment" certificate or maybe have one of those vanity license plates?  The thought that conservatives should not merely accept the already bastardized version of marriage that currently exists, but should also seek to extend it to people who can not bear children nor do we want raising them just seems like a venture into Cloud-Cuckoo Land.

Finally, we come to a topic which speaks loudly in Mr. Sullivan's book by its very absence : the homosexual act itself.  I can't help feeling that Mr. Sullivan has very badly overestimated the degree to which conservatives have become comfortable with homosexuals and homosexuality.  He is probably right in saying that most conservatives "regard some level of comfort with homosexuals as a mark of civilized conduct."  But I suspect, if personal feelings and experiences are any guide at all, that this level of comfort extends only to the point of being courteous.  The picture he draws of conservatives adding cache to their social occasions by inviting homosexuals may obtain on the Coasts, but seems preposterous as a vision of Middle America.  And it is absolutely the case, as I believe his book implicitly concedes (both by its silence about sex between men and by its failure even to include lesbians in the discussion), that conservatives will avoid at all costs the discussion of the physical act of homosexual congress.  Even in a group of mildly liberal people, mouthing the accepted social platitudes about how homosexuality is merely a different life style choice, nothing is more certain to redden faces and bring the conversation screeching to a halt than to introduce the fact that such sex requires the confluence of penis and anus.  Is it not fair to question Mr. Sullivan's rather beatific image of us newly accepting conservatives when even he acknowledges that we find it "uncomfortable to talk about" ?

I suspect that he must have been confronted by this fact frequently after writing the book, because my copy has an Afterword that did not appear in the original edition, in which he says of the criticism he received from conservatives :

    There are times in the conservative critiques, despite the calm and serious tone of many of them, when one suspects a very simple thing is
    going on.  Many conservatives simply have not yet absorbed the presence of gay and lesbian citizens in their midst.  They assume still that
    such people are somehow outside society, and outside of the polity.  So, even when they concede the gist and power of many of the points
    made, the burden of proof still lies, as far as they are concerned, with homosexuals themselves.  For equal treatment, homosexuals have to
    prove not merely that they are not lying about their fundamental condition, but that they are as able--and in many cases more than able--to
    perform the responsibilities of citizenship that others take for granted.

Here I believe he is just wrong.  The reluctance he has encountered from conservatives is not a function of our inability to perceive the presence of homosexuals in daily life, if nothing else, gay liberation has made homosexuals an unavoidable fact of our cultural life.  Instead, what he has come up against is a depth of conservative commitment perhaps best expressed by Albert Jay Nock in his invaluable Memoirs of a Superfluous Man :

    As a man of reason and logic, I am all for reform; but as the unworthy inheritor of a great tradition, I am unalterably against it.  I am
    forever with Falkland, the true martyr of the Civil War,--one of the very greatest among the great spirits of whom England has ever been
    so notoriously noteworthy,--as he stood facing Hampden and Pym.  'Mr. Speaker,' he said, 'when it is not necessary to change, it is
    necessary not to change.'

Mr. Sullivan's book is engaging, gracefully argued, and eminently readable, but it fails in one vital regard : it does not convince us that change is necessary.  Conservatives can probably live comfortably in a world where homosexuals are allowed to do mush as they wish when they are in private and where government acknowledges the existence of commitment between homosexuals in some limited fashion--perhaps some kind of contractual relationship would be appropriate--but to ask conservatives to turn the central institutions of the civilization into laboratories for social experimentation, is to ask more than we can possibly allow and still be true to our core convictions.  We wish Mr. Sullivan no ill, and have no great desire to intrude upon his privacy, but neither do we care to treat homosexuals as if they were exactly the same as heterosexuals.  Since Mr. Sullivan himself repeatedly makes a point of the intrinsic differences between the two, the conservative position seems entirely reasonable to me.

Ultimately, I suspect that the politics of homosexuality that Mr. Sullivan outlines is a pretty accurate forecast of where we will eventually end up as a nation.  But honesty compels me to say that I do not look forward to that day.  It is incumbent on conservatives to offer the resistance to the process that will take us there, hopefully slowing that change to a glacial pace and perhaps managing to keep it from going any further.  Of course, as conservatives, we believe that this change, once begun, will go on much further.  We believe with Emerson that, "Events are in the saddle and ride mankind" and that they will end, in the words of one of the characters in Ghostbusters, with "cats and dogs sleeping together."  Yet, we will remain forever with Falkland.

(Reviewed:)

Grade: (A-)

  

Websites:

Andrew Sullivan Links:

    Homocons a review of The Attack Queers: Liberal Society and the Gay Right by Richard Goldstein (Bob Berens, Spring 03, Dissent)

Book-related and General Links:
    -AndrewSullivan.com
    -New Republic (Senior Editor)
    -CARICATURE : of Andrew Sullivan (David Levine, NY Review of Books)
    -BOOK LIST : Faith in Reading : Andrew Sullivan, author of "Virtually Normal" and former editor of The New Republic, recommends some books that have shaped his thinking about the Catholic faith (August 17, 1997, NY Times)
    -EXCERPT : from Love Undetectable : The Eye in the Storm : Andrew Sullivan takes on love, loss, friendship and sex (POZ)
    -ESSAY : Negatives (on Michael Oakeshott) (Andrew Sullivan, 07.26.01, New Republic)
    -ESSAY : Longing : Remembering Allan Bloom (Andrew Sullivan, The New Republic, April 17, 2000)
    -ESSAY : Why is this race even close? Because George W. Bush has campaigned better, proposed more forward-thinking programs and
proved, in the end, that he's smarter than Al Gore. (Andrew Sullivan, 11/07/00, Salon)
    -ESSAY : America's gay vote: all in the family : President Bush and America's gay voters (Andrew Sullivan, The New Republic, February 14, 2001)
    -ESSAY : Only Human (Andrew Sullivan, 07.19.01, New Republic)
    -ESSAY : InnerNet (Andrew Sullivan, Forbes ASAP, 10.04.99)
    -ESSAY : Sea of Tranquility (Andrew Sullivan, Forbes ASAP, 11.30.98)
    -REVIEW : of AN AFFAIR OF STATE : The Investigation, Impeachment, and Trial of President Clinton By Richard A. Posner (Andrew Sullivan, NY Times Book Review)
    -REVIEW : of Pontius Pilate by Ann Wroe (Andrew Sullivan, National Review)
    -REVIEW : THE LIFE OF THOMAS MORE By Peter Ackroyd (Andrew Sullivan, NY Times Book REview)
    -REVIEW : of THE NEW PRINCE : Machiavelli Updated for the Twenty-first Century. By Dick Morris (Andrew Sullivan, NY Times Book Review)
    -REVIEW : of The Big Test The Secret History of the American Meritocracy. By Nicholas Lemann (Andrew Sullivan, NY Times Book Review)
    -REVIEW : of Just As I Am The Autobiography of Billy Graham. By Billy Graham (Andrew Sullivan, NY Times Book Review)
    -REVIEW : CONSTANTINE'S SWORD : The Church and the Jews: A History. By James Carroll (Andrew Sullivan, NY Times Book Review)
    -REVIEW : DOG LOVE By Marjorie Garber (Andrew Sullivan, NY Times Book Review)
    -REVIEW : of The Golden Age By Gore Vidal (Andrew Sullivan, NY Times Book Review)
    -REVIEW : of Serving The Word Literalism in America From the Pulpit to the Bench. By Vincent Crapanzano (Andrew Sullivan, NY Times Book Review)
    -ARCHIVES : Andrew Sullivan (Independent Gay Forum)
    -INTERVIEW : Virtually Normal (Mark Marvel, September 04 2000, Interview)
    -INTERVIEW : with Andrew Sullivan (DAVID ADOX, May 1997, Salon)
    -INTERVIEW : Man in the hot seat.(Andrew Sullivan)(Advocate, The, September 05 2000 by Sarah Schulman)
    -INTERVIEW : Sullivan on Bush: "So far, so good" : Andrew Sullivan has emerged as one of the prominent voices of the gay conservative movement. The Dartmouth Review caught up with Sullivan to ask him a few questions about Bush and his gay constituents. (Matthew Tokson, 5/14/01, Dartmouth Review)
    -PROFILE : Sullivan's Travels : Ambitious and self-absorbed, ex-pat  Andrew Sullivan has made a career out of his personal and political
contradictions -- and pissing people off. (MICHAEL WOLFF, New York)
    -PROFILE : Uncle Andrew's cabin : HOW DID A MORALIZING, SELF-CENTERED TORY NAMED ANDREW SULLIVAN BECOME THE SPOKESMAN FOR GAY AMERICA? (PETER KURTH, November 1998, Salon)
    -PROFILE : The Britishisation of American Magazines (Katie Prout, NY Review of Magazines)
    -ESSAY : Take a Shill Pill : Andrew Sullivan Sings for His Drugs (Cynthia Cotts, November 2000, Village Voice)
    -ESSAY : The Queer/Gay Assimilationist Split : The Suits vs. the Sluts (Benjamin H. Shepard, May 2001, Monthly Review)
    -ESSAY : THE DEATH OF INTELLECT (National Review, 2/22/99)
    -ESSAY : Andrew Sullivan's Descent Ý(Ken Sanes, July 13, 2001, Transparency Now)
    -ESSAY : Falling Off the Wagon : Andrew Sullivan and the Estate Tax. (Derek Copold, March 11, 2001, Houston Review)
    -ESSAY : You don't have children, do you? (Lawrence Henry, June 25, 2001, Enter Stage Right)
    -ESSAY : The Dread Sullivan Show (Michael E. Ross, Ishmael Reed's Konch Magazine)
    -ESSAY : Outing by any other name : The gay press was pilloried a decade ago for outing. But the practice we were accused of inventing
is now used by the likes of Barbara Walters and The New York Times (michelangelo signorile, The Advocate)
    -ARCHIVES : Salon.com Directory | Andrew Sullivan : A complete listing of Salon articles on Andrew Sullivan (Salon)
    -ARCHIVES : "andrew sullivan" (Find Articles)
    -ARCHIVES : "andrew sullivan" (Mag Portal)
    -REVIEW : of Virtually Normal (Andrew Delbanco, NY Times Book Review)
    -REVIEW : of Virtually Normal (Elizabeth Kristol, First Things)
    -REVIEW : of Virtually Normal (Walter Olson, Reason)
    -REVIEW : of Virtually Normal (K. Anthony Appiah, NY Review of Books)
    -REVIEW : Virtually Normal (Samuel Gladden, The Touchstone)
    -REVIEW : of Virtually Normal (Shane Phelan, American Political Science Review)
    -REVIEW : Virtually Normal (Michael Joseph Gross, Boston Phoenix)
    -REVIEW : of Virtually Normal (Nik Trendowski, Daily Trojan)
    -REVIEW : of Virtually Normal (Julie L. Anderson, The International Gay & Lesbian Review)
    -REVIEW : of Virtually Normal (Bi Community News)
    -REVIEW : of Virtually Normal (Badpuppy, Gay Today)
    -REVIEW : of Virtually Normal (MELISSA MURPHY)
    -REVIEW : of Virtually Normal (David Wright, The Care Review)
    -REVIEW : of Love Undetectable, by Andrew Sullivan (National Review, Norah Vincent)
    -REVIEW : of Love Undetectable by Andrew Sullivan (HPPUB BOOK REVIEW)
    -REVIEW : of Love Undetectable (Michael Warner, In These Times)
    -REVIEW : of Love Undetectable (Antony Grey, Gay and Lesbian Humanist)
    -REVIEW : of Love Undetectable (Commonweal, Gilbert Meilaender)

GAY MARRIAGE :
    -ESSAY : Here Comes the Groom: A (Conservative) Case For Gay Marriage (Andrew Sullivan, New Republic, August 28, 1989)
    -Controversy: Marriage and the Gay Agenda (Andrew Sullivan, American Prospect)
    -ESSAY : In Need of an Amendment : Defending the valued institution of marriage. (NR editors, July 23, 2001, National Review)
    -ESSAY : Code of Honor : Andrew Sullivanís faulty arithmetic. (Stanley Kurtz, August 6, 2001, National Review)
    -ESSAYS : The Marriage Amendment : Constitutional issues (Jonathan Rauch, Andrew Sullivan & NR's editors, July 23, 2001, National
Review)
    -ESSAY : Why 'Civil Union' Isn't Marriage : Vermont's "civil union" compromise is heartening ó but it's not enough. (Andrew Sullivan, The New Republic, May 8, 2000)
    -ESSAY : Unveiled (Andrew Sullivan, 08.02.01, New Republic)
    -ESSAY : Respect, yes; equivalence, no : Same-sex marriage is a lost cause because gays are not the "same." (David Horowitz [06/09/97, Salon)
    -INTERVIEW : with Andrew Sullivan : Marriage as a revolutionary act : Andrew Sullivan has been condemned as a reactionary by some fellow gay intellectuals for advocating marriage instead of promiscuity -- but his complex views on politics, religion and his own sex life defy
easy labels. (Carol Lloyd, 11/30/98, Salon)
    -ESSAY : When John and Jim Say, "I Do" (Charles Krauthammer, TIME)
    -Directory : Gay Marriage (FreeMarket.net)
    -SPECIAL : Gay Marriage: For Better or For Worse? (Leadership U)
    -REVIEW : of Same Sex Marriage : Pro and Con edited by Andrew Sullivan (Daniel Harris, International Gay & Lesbian Review)
    -REVIEW : of Same Sex Marriage : Pro and Con edited by Andrew Sullivan (Corey Scholibo, International Gay & Lesbian Review)
    -REVIEW : of Same Sex Marriage (Jethelo E. Cabilete, The Brunswickan)
    -REVIEW : of Same Sex Marriage (JOHNNY RAY HUSTON, Salon)
    -ARCHIVES : Marriage and Relationships (Independent Gay Forum)
    -REVIEW : of Wifework By Susan Maushart (Joan Smith, Times of London)

AIDS/SEX :
    -ESSAY : The He Hormone : As testosterone becomes increasingly available, more is being learned about how men and women are not
created equal. So let's accept it and move on. (ANDREW SULLIVAN, April 02, 2000, NY Times Magazine)
    -ESSAY : Are You Man Enough? : Testosterone can make a difference in bed and at the gym. And soon you'll be able to get it as a gel. But it's a risky substance. And is it really what makes men men? (RICHARD LACAYO, 4/24/00, TIME)
    -ESSAY : Sullivan's Travails (Steve Sailer, August 10, 2001, V Dare)
    -ESSAY : Profit of Doom? (Andrew Sullivan, 03.15.01, New Republic) Ý
    -INTERVIEW : The Heretic : Andrew Sullivan (Manjula Martin, POZ, April 1997)
    -ESSAY : La Dolce Musto (Michael Musto, May 16 - 22, 2001, Village Voice)
    -ESSAY : The Contradictory Faces Of Andrew Sullivan (MICHELANGELO SIGNORILE, Lesbian Gay New York)
    -ESSAY : In defense of Andrew Sullivan : Whatever discrepancies exist between his public words and his private actions, the attempt to
smear him sexually is a vendetta masquerading as journalism. (Cliff Rothman, June 2, 2001, Salon)
    -ESSAY : Andrew Sullivan and His Enemies: A Conservative Case against Moralizing (Barton Wong, June 6, 2001, Houston Review)
    -ESSAY : The politics of horniness (Lawrence Henry,  January 14, 2002, Enter Stage Right)
    -ESSAY : Private parts : The Andrew Sullivan and Jenna Bush stories raise one of the toughest questions in journalism: When is it
acceptable to reveal the private lives of public figures? (Joan Walsh, 06/05/01, Salon)
    -ESSAY : Strange Bedfellows : What could the Andrew Sullivan sex scandal and the George Christy Hollywood-graft affair possibly have
in common? More than you think. (MICHAEL WOLFF, New York)
    -ESSAY : The Real Andrew Sullivan Scandal : His Private Life Is None of Our Business. His Public Life Certainly Is. (Richard Goldstein,
June 2001, Village Voice)
    -ESSAY : Unprotected : Should the private sex lives of public people enter into discussions of HIV prevention? (The Advocate, July 3, 2001)
    -ESSAY : My story was ethical : Writer Andrew Sullivan's pronouncements on AIDS and other gay issues made his personal life fair game. (Michelangelo Signorile, June 5, 2001, Salon)
    -ESSAY : Mr. Morals Caught Out : HIV-positive andrew sullivan wants to bareback (MICHAEL BRONSKI, Now Toronto)
    -ESSAY : Forbidden love : Can sex between close relatives ever be acceptable? Johann Hari on the queasy issue of 'consensual' incest
(Johann Hari, January 9, 2002, The Guardian)

9/11 & AFTER :
    -ESSAY : Who Authorized This? : Why does the United States elicit such extreme hatred in some parts of the world? (Andrew Sullivan,
Forbes ASAP, 12.03.01 )
    -ESSAY : Iraq Now (Andrew Sullivan, 11.19.01, New Republic)
    -ESSAY : Sontag Hedges (Andrew Sullivan, 10.19.01, New Republic)
    -ESSAY : Why we should support this war (Andrew Sullivan, Gay.com / PlanetOut.com Network)
    -ESSAY : This Is a Religious War (Andrew Sullivan, October 7, 2001, NY Times Magazine)
    -ESSAY : Gladstone Lives (Andrew Sullivan, 10.03.01, New Republic)
    -ESSAY : America at War (Andrew Sullivan, London Times)
    -ESSAY : The Agony of the Left : Forced to choose between the West and the Taliban, some have trouble deciding. (Andrew Sullivan,
October 4, 2001, Wall Street Journal)
    -ESSAY : Protocols : The Anti-Semitism of the Islamo-Fascists
    -ESSAY : Andrew Sullivan's jihad : Since Sept. 11, the British journalist has declared himself the mullah of the media world,
sitting in judgment of American writers' patriotism. (David Talbot, Oct. 20, 2001, Salon)
    -ESSAY : United colours of America (Andrew Sullivan, London Sunday Times, October 15, 2000)
    -ESSAY : Remind me, who put this triumph together? (Andrew Sullivan, 11/18/01, Times of London)
    -ESSAY : Thanksgiving turkey was never so good (Andrew Sullivan, 11/25/01, Times of London)
    -ARCHIVES : PHILOSOPHY IN WARTIME

CLINTON :
    -ESSAY : While Clinton diddled : The record doesn't lie. The former president had repeated warnings and wake-up calls, but he failed to
protect the country against the growing danger of Islamic terrorism. (Andrew Sullivan, Jan. 9, 2002, Salon)
    -ESSAY : Psycho (Andrew Sullivan, 03.01.01, New Republic) Ý
    -ESSAY : Sex, lies, and ... us. (Advocate, The, September 05 2000 by Andrew Sullivan)

BLOGGING :
    -ESSAY : Let Slip the Blogs of War (Tim Cavanaugh, January 17, 2002, Online Journalism Review)
    -ESSAY : THE SOLOISTS (Brent Cunningham, Columbia Journalism Review)
    -ESSAY : Blogging as a Form of Journalism : Weblogs offer a vital, creative outlet for alternative voices (J.D. Lasica, May 24, 2001 , OJR)
    -ARTICLE : In online logs, Web authors personalize attacks, retaliation (Anick Jesdanun, 10/14/01,  Associated Press)
    -Weblogs and the News : Where News, Journalism and Weblogs Intersect

GAYS & CONSERVATIVES :
    -Independent Gay Forum
    -The Journal of Human Sexuality
    -Log Cabin Republicans
    -National Association for Research and Therapy of Homosexuality (NARTH) : a non-profit, educational organization dedicated to the
research, therapy and prevention of homosexuality
    -ESSAY : Homosexuality and Natural Law (Harry V. Jaffa, Claremont Institute)
    -ESSAY : Finding the Straight Path : David Morrison on Our War over Homosexuality (Touchstone)
    -ESSAY : Homosexuality and the Bible Scripture is not the ally Christian homophobes think it is. (Bishop John Shelby Spong)
    -ESSAY : WE ARE EVERYWHERE, UNFORTUNATELY : THE PROBLEM WITH GAY CONSERVATISM
    -ESSAY : Beyond fear (Rich Tafel, The Advocate, November 6, 2001)
    -ESSAY : the boys in the bathhouses : According to the "queer theorists," having lots of anonymous gay sex is the answerto the tyranny of the normal. Forget that it will also kill you. (David Horowitz [11/03/97, Salon)
    -ESSAY : Homosexuality, Morality, and the Truth of Church Teaching (Mark S. Latkovic, S.T.D., Catholic Faith)
    -ESSAY : GAY CONSERVATIVES: Pulling the Movement to the Right (SURINA KHAN, Public Eye)
    -ESSAY : "Pedophilia Chic" Reconsidered : The taboo against sex with children continues to erode. (Mary Eberstadt, January 8, 2001, Weekly Standard)
    -ESSAY : Gay and lesbian Catholics beg to differ (Thomas J. Billitteri, November 1997, US Catholic)
    -ESSAY : Gay Second Thoughts (Cris Rapp, Heterodoxy)
    -ESSAY : But What do I Say? Ý (J. BUDZISZEWSKI, Catholic Educators' Resource Center)
    -ESSAY : Ex-Gay Sheds the Mocking Quote Marks : The retiring head of Exodus says gay transformation ministries are more respected and effective than ever (Douglas LeBlanc; 01/11/2002, Christianity Today)
    -REVIEW : of Close Encounters with the Religious Right: Journeys into the Twilight Zone of Religion and Politics by Robert Boston (Jack Nichols, Gay Today)
    -REVIEW : of Michael Warner's book, The Trouble With Normal: Sex, Politics, and the Ethics of Queer Life. (Jonathan Rauch, Reason)
    -REVIEW : of Didi Hermanís The Antigay Agenda, Orthodox Vision and the Christian Right (Hastings Wyman, in The Washington Post)
    -REVIEW : of Guess Who's Coming to Dinner Now? Multicultural Conservatism in America, by Angela D. Dillard (Steve Sailer, National Review)
    -REVIEW : of The Battle for Normality: A Guide for (Self)Therapy for Homosexuals by Gerard J.M. van den Aardweg, Ph.D. (Linda Ames Nicolosi, Catholic Dossier)

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